Chilblains (also called "pernio") is not the same as frostbite. Chilblains is inflammation of the small blood vessels in the skin in response to cold but above-freezing temperatures. This results in red, swollen skin — usually on the face, ears, fingers and toes — which appears several hours after exposure to cold. You may also experience an itchy, burning sensation in the affected skin. Sometimes chilblains progresses to blisters and even open sores.
The cause of chilblains isn't known. But blood tests in some people with chilblains may reveal abnormal proteins that tend to sludge in cold temperatures.
In chilblains, it's important to slowly rewarm the skin after cold exposure. Treatment may also include:
Corticosteroid creams to relieve itching and swelling
Medications to improve circulation
Keeping any sores clean and protected with sterile dressings
An episode of chilblains usually clears up within seven to 14 days. To prevent chilblains, avoid or limit your exposure to cold, such as by dressing warmly and covering your head and all exposed skin when you go outside in cold weather.